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Crustal Deformation Processes As the plates move, the crust deforms dominantly along the plate margins. Therefore, temperature and pressure control deformation processes. Ductile rocks tend to bend, fold, stretch, or flow due to compressional or extensional forces. Brittle rocks, on the other hand, tend to break.
convergent plate boundaries
Tectonic Plates and Plate Boundaries
There are three kinds of plate tectonic boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries. The impact of the colliding plates can cause the edges of one or both plates to buckle up into a mountain ranges or one of the plates may bend down into a deep seafloor trench.
There are two types of divergent boundaries, categorized by where they occur: continental rift zones and mid-ocean ridges.
Most divergent plate boundaries are underwater and form submarine mountain ranges called oceanic spreading ridges. While the process of forming these mountain ranges is volcanic, volcanoes and earthquakes along oceanic spreading ridges are not as violent as they are at convergent plate boundaries.
Transform boundaries are where two of these plates are sliding alongside each other. This causes intense earthquakes, the formation of thin linear valleys, and split river beds. The most famous example of a transform boundary is the San Andreas Fault in California.
San Andreas Fault
Volcanism occurs at convergent boundaries (subduction zones) and at divergent boundaries (mid-ocean ridges, continental rifts), but not commonly at transform boundaries.
Transform boundaries represent the borders found in the fractured pieces of the Earth’s crust where one tectonic plate slides past another to create an earthquake fault zone. Linear valleys, small ponds, stream beds split in half, deep trenches, and scarps and ridges often mark the location of a transform boundary.
Transform boundaries are areas where the Earth’s plates move past each other, rubbing along the edges. As the plates slide across from each other, they neither create land nor destroy it. Because of this, they are sometimes referred to as conservative boundaries or margins.
Transform boundaries Most transform faults are found on the ocean floor. They commonly offset the active spreading ridges, producing zig-zag plate margins, and are generally defined by shallow earthquakes.
Transform fault, in geology and oceanography, a type of fault in which two tectonic plates slide past one another. A transform fault may occur in the portion of a fracture zone that exists between different offset spreading centres or that connects spreading centres to deep-sea trenches in subduction zones.
The grinding action between the plates at a transform plate boundary results in shallow earthquakes, large lateral displacement of rock, and a broad zone of crustal deformation. Perhaps nowhere on Earth is such a landscape more dramatically displayed than along the San Andreas Fault in western California.
Boundary instability from asymmetric plate growth can spontaneously start in alternate directions along successive ridge sections; the resultant curved ridges become transform faults. Offsets along the transform faults change continuously with time by asymmetric plate growth and discontinuously by ridge jumps.
Most transform faults are found in the ocean basin and connect offsets in the mid-ocean ridges.
Transform faults are harder to find because they are not single straight lines of movement, it is zigzagged. Earthquakes are expected to happen during transform faults because they are the one segments of fracture zones that are seismically active.
Earthquakes along strike-slip faults at transform plate boundaries generally do not cause tsunami because there is little or no vertical movement.
Why do ships at sea tend not to notice tsunamis? -Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and long wavelength. -In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a larger water column. -In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a smaller water column.
The third type of plate boundary is the transform fault, where plates slide past one another without the production or destruction of crust. These may result in some of the most damaging earthquakes on continental crust.
Tsunamis are caused by violent seafloor movement associated with earthquakes, landslides, lava entering the sea, seamount collapse, or meteorite impact.
What are the stages or steps of a tsunami? Answer 1: A tsunami has four general stages: initiation, split, amplification, and run-up. During initiation, a large set of ocean waves are caused by any large and sudden disturbance of the sea surface, most commonly earthquakes but sometimes also underwater landslides.
No, all earthquakes do not cause tsunamis. There are four conditions necessary for an earthquake to cause a tsunami: (1) The earthquake must occur beneath the ocean or cause material to slide in the ocean. (2) The earthquake must be strong, at least magnitude 6.5.
Being in the water (swimming pool or any other water) is no protection from the huge wave of a tsunami (sometimes more than one). You cannot just hold your breath and wait for the wave to pass over you. It will pick you up like it uproots a palm tree and carry you away.