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Al-Qaeda ideologues envision the removal of all foreign influences in Muslim countries. Al-Qaeda members believe a Christian–Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam. As Salafist jihadists, members of al-Qaeda believe that killing non-combatants is religiously sanctioned.
In Osama bin Laden’s November 2002 “Letter to America”, he explicitly stated that al-Qaeda’s motives for their attacks include: Western support for attacking Muslims in Somalia, supporting Russian atrocities against Muslims in Chechnya, supporting the Indian oppression against Muslims in Kashmir, the Jewish aggression …
Answer: To increase the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and prevent foreign intervention in the Middle East.
Al-Qaeda, Arabic al-Qāʿidah (“the Base”), broad-based militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s.
Soviets wanted to weaken Pakistan which was an ally of United States and China. Soviet Union also believed that the hostile behaviour of Afghanistan against Pakistan and Iran could alienate Afghanistan from the west and Afghanistan would be forced to into a closer relationship with Soviet Union.
15,000 Soviet soldiers
In the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia (1219-1221), Genghis Khan invaded the region from the northeast in one of his many conquests to create the huge Mongol Empire. Thereafter most parts of Afghanistan other than the extreme south-eastern remained under Mongol rule as part of the Ilkhanate and Chagatai Khanate.
The religion Zoroastrianism is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster is thought to have lived and died in Balkh while the region at the time was referred to as Ariana.
The name Afghanistan is mentioned in writing by the 16th century Mughal rulers Babur and his descendants, referring to the territory between Khorasan, Kabulistan, and the Indus River, which was inhabited by tribes of Afghans.
Pashtuns are native to the land comprising southern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan (which is occasionally referred to as the Pashtunistan region), which is where the majority of the population resides.
Historically, the region of Roh has also been called “Pashtunkhwa” and “Afghanistan”. Pashtuns especially the Mandarr Yousafzai tribe living in this valley were also known as Rohillas when they settled the area then known as Katehr. It later became known as Rohilkhand which means the land of the Rohillas.
The Chinese traveler Xuanzang (fl. 7th century CE) recorded the city as Kaofu. The name “Kabul” was first applied to the Kabul river before being applied to the area situated between the Hindu Kush and Sindh (present-day Pakistan). This area was also known as Kabulistan.
Ahmad Shah Durrani
The composite Turco-Persian tradition or Turco-Iranian tradition (Persian: فرهنگ ایرانی-ترکی; Turkish: Türk-İran geleneği) refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan …