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What is the first step of the ETC called?

1) In the first step of the ETC, an NADH molecule arrives at protein Complex I, also called NADH dehydrogenase. Complex I receives two electrons from NADH, oxidizing it to NAD+. One hydrogen is pumped into the intermembrane space for each electron.

What is the function of the first electron transport chain?

In the electron transport chain, electrons are passed from one molecule to another, and energy released in these electron transfers is used to form an electrochemical gradient. In chemiosmosis, the energy stored in the gradient is used to make ATP.

Does the electron transport chain require oxygen?

Why is oxygen essential for the electron transport chain? Explanation: Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor for the electron transport chain. Electrons are donated by NADH molecules and passed through several different proteins to generate the proton gradient in the intermembrane space.

What is the function of ATP synthase in the electron transport chain?

During electron transport, the participating protein complexes push protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space. This creates a concentration gradient of protons that another protein complex, called ATP synthase, uses to power synthesis of the energy carrier molecule ATP (Figure 2).

What is the function of the second electron transport chain?

The electron transport chain is a series of electron transporters embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane that shuttles electrons from NADH and FADH2 to molecular oxygen. In the process, protons are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, and oxygen is reduced to form water.

What does oxygen get reduced to at the end of the electron transport chain?

Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor, the last molecule to receive the electrons from the system. According to the animation, what does oxygen get reduced to at the end of the electron transport chain? FADH2 electrons enter the electron transport chain at a lower energy level.

How much ATP does the electron transport chain produce?

A total of 32 ATP molecules are generated in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.

What would happen if you inhibited ATP synthase?

Inhibition of the ATP synthase compromises the output of ATP by OXPHOS and rewires energy metabolism to an enhanced glycolysis. Phosphorylation of S39 in IF1 prevents its binding to the ATP synthase releasing the inhibition of the enzyme.

What are the 5 main subunits of the f1 portion of the proton pump for ATP production?

F1 is made of α, β, γ, and δ subunits. F1 has a water-soluble part that can hydrolyze ATP. FO on the other hand has mainly hydrophobic regions. FO F1 creates a pathway for protons movement across the membrane.

What is the difference between ATPase and ATP synthase?

The main difference between ATPase and ATP synthase is that ATPase is the enzyme, which breaks down ATP into ADP and free phosphate group. In contrast, ATP synthase is the enzyme, which synthesizes ATP by combining ADP and a free phosphate group.

What is another name for ATP synthase?

“F-type ATPase” is just another name for ATP synthase; letter “F” comes from “phosphorylation Factor”. F-ATPases are present in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Their major function in most cases is ATP synthesis at the expense of the transmembrane electrochemical proton potential difference.

What kind of protein is ATPase?

1.1 Overall Architecture. The P-type ATPases are a large family of integral membrane proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport cations and lipids across membranes (Bublitz, Morth, & Nissen, 2011; Palmgren & Nissen, 2011).

How does ATPase make ATP?

The ATP synthase of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source for adding an inorganic phosphate group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

In which step is the most ATP made?

The Krebs cycle takes place inside the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle produces the CO2 that you breath out. This stage produces most of the energy ( 34 ATP molecules, compared to only 2 ATP for glycolysis and 2 ATP for Krebs cycle).

How does the Na+ K+ ATPase maintain the membrane potential?

The sodium-potassium pump goes through cycles of shape changes to help maintain a negative membrane potential. In each cycle, three sodium ions exit the cell, while two potassium ions enter the cell. These ions travel against the concentration gradient, so this process requires ATP.

Why is ATPase reversible?

The proton gradient is high enough that it drives protons back into the mitochondrion, and the ATPase reaction is reversed, meaning that the energy from the proton gradient is harnessed by this transporter to form ATP.