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## What is the correct order of depolarization in the heart?

Thus, the SA node depolarization is followed by atrial contraction. The SA node impulse also spreads to the atrioventricular node (AV node) via the internodal fibers. (The wave of depolarization does not spread to the ventricles right away because there is nonconducting tissue separating the atria and ventricles.)

## What is the sequence of travel by an action potential through the heart?

In the ventricles, the action potential travels along the interventricular septum to the apex of the heart, where it then spreads superiorly along the ventricle walls. Action potentials are carried by the Purkinje fibers from the bundle branches to the ventricular walls.

## What is the correct order of conduction?

The main parts of the system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers. Let’s follow a signal through the contraction process. The SA node starts the sequence by causing the atrial muscles to contract. That’s why doctors sometimes call it the anatomical pacemaker.

## How the heart contracts step by step?

When the SA node sends an electrical impulse, it triggers the following process:

1. The electrical signal travels from your SA node through muscle cells in your right and left atria.
2. The signal triggers the muscle cells that make your atria contract.
3. The atria contract, pumping blood into your left and right ventricles.

## Which of the following is the correct formula for calculating cardiac output?

We can use this simple calculation to figure out cardiac output: Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume * Heart Rate, which is written CO = SV * HR. Remember, there are two variables that are used to determine the cardiac output. Those are the stroke volume and heart rate.

## What is the mathematical formula for normal cardiac output CO )?

Cardiac output is the product of two variables, stroke volume and heart rate. Heart rate is simply a count of the number of times a heart beats per minute. Stroke volume is the amount of blood circulated by the heart with each beat. The formula for this is expressed as CO = SV x HR.

## How do you monitor cardiac output?

Cardiac output can be estimated using Doppler ultrasound to determine the flow of blood through the aorta. Most devices in current practice use a Doppler probe inserted into the oesophagus to measure descending aortic flow (Fig. 2).

## What are the factors that determine cardiac output?

Factors affect cardiac output by changing heart rate and stroke volume. Primary factors include blood volume reflexes, autonomic innervation, and hormones. Secondary factors include extracellular fluid ion concentration, body temperature, emotions, sex, and age.

## What is the most important determinant of cardiac output?

The analogy and the four determinants of cardiac output

• Heart rate. The heart rate is perhaps the simplest determinant of cardiac output to visualize: the faster the heart beats, the more blood can be pumped over a particular period of time.
• Contractility.

## What is the major determinant of cardiac output Why?

HR is determined by signals from the sinoatrial node, which automatically depolarizes at an intrinsic rate of 60 to 100 times each minute. SV is the other major determinant of cardiac output and is also affected by several factors. The amount of blood ejected each beat depends on preload, contractility, and afterload.

## What are signs of decreased cardiac output?

Clinical features of the condition

• Fatigue, confusion, agitation and/or decreased level of consciousness.
• Cool peripheries, mottled peripheries and delayed capillary refill time.
• Hypotension.
• Raised jugular venous pressure.
• Breathlessness and hypoxaemia.

## What is risk for decreased cardiac output?

Results: The label ‘risk for decreased cardiac output’ was considered representative of a nursing diagnosis defined as ‘at risk of developing a health status characterized by an insufficient quantity of blood pumped by the heart to meet physical metabolic demands’.

## What are the 4 stages of heart failure?

There are four stages of heart failure (Stage A, B, C and D). The stages range from “high risk of developing heart failure” to “advanced heart failure,” and provide treatment plans.

## What causes decreased cardiac output?

Low-output symptoms, which are caused by the inability of the heart to generate enough cardiac output, leading to reduced blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. These symptoms may include lightheadedness, fatigue, and low urine output.

## What is normal heart output percentage?

What’s normal? A normal heart’s ejection fraction may be between 50 and 70 percent. You can have a normal ejection fraction measurement and still have heart failure (called HFpEF or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction).

## What drugs increase cardiac output?

Inotropic agents such as milrinone, digoxin, dopamine, and dobutamine are used to increase the force of cardiac contractions.

## What is low cardiac output syndrome?

Abstract. Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a clinical condition that is caused by a transient decrease in systemic perfusion secondary to myocardial dysfunction. The outcome is an imbalance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption at the cellular level which leads to metabolic acidosis.

## How does low blood pressure affect cardiac output?

As a result, the heart has less blood to pump out, and blood pressure may temporarily drop throughout the body. When a person sits down or lies down, blood can more easily return to the heart, and cardiac output and blood pressure may increase.

## How do you fix low cardiac output?

Common nursing interventions for decreased cardiac output include:

1. Provide supplemental oxygen (if needed)
2. Monitor fluid intake, including IVs if necessary.
3. Monitor the patient’s heart rate.
4. Monitor blood pressure.
5. Record heart sounds.
6. Record pulse.

## How do you manage low cardiac output?

The initiation of therapeutic strategies such as inotropes, steroids, inodilators, afterload reducing agents, and mechanical ventilation may all have a role in augmenting cardiac output, decreasing oxygen demand, and improving the relationship between oxygen supply and demand.

## Does high blood pressure cause decreased cardiac output?

In most forms of hypertension, the hypertensive state is maintained by an elevation in blood volume, which in turn increases cardiac output by the Frank-Starling relationship.

## How does dehydration affect cardiac output?

The amount of blood circulating through your body, or blood volume, decreases when you are dehydrated. To compensate, your heart beats faster, increasing your heart rate and causing you to feel palpitations. Also your blood retains more sodium, making it tougher for it to circulate through your body.

## What is cardiac output and why is it important?

Cardiac output is important because it predicts oxygen delivery to cells. Here’s an example: If a patient’s stroke volume is 75 mL with each contraction and his heart rate is 60 beats/minute, his cardiac output is 4,500 mL/minute (or 4.5 L/minute).

## What does high cardiac index mean?

In terms of cardiac output, a high cardiac output state is defined as a resting cardiac output greater than 8 L/min or a cardiac index of greater than 4.0/min/m2 [1], and heart failure occurs when that cardiac output is insufficient to supply the demand.

## What happens to the circulatory system during exercise?

When exercising our muscles contract more often and require more energy. Energy is made during the process of respiration . As more glucose and oxygen is needed, cardiac output (blood pumped per minute) and blood flow to the muscles increases. This causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

## Which of the following will increase cardiac output?

Which of the following would increase cardiac output? Sympathetic stimulation leads to the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, both of which increase heart rate and increase contractility, which increases stroke volume. Increasing heart rate and stroke volume increases cardiac output.