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What causes gene mutation?

A mutation is a change in a DNA sequence. Mutations can result from DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, exposure to chemicals called mutagens, or infection by viruses.

What is the gene mutation?

A gene mutation (myoo-TAY-shun) is a change in one or more genes. Some mutations can lead to genetic disorders or illnesses.

Why does acetylation lead to less condensed chromosomes quizlet?

When chromatin is condensed, DNA is not accessible for transcription. Acetylation of histone tails reduces the attraction between neighboring nucleosomes, causing chromatin to assume a looser structure and allowing access to the DNA for transcription.

How can rate of gene expression be modified by specific transcription factors?

Transcription can be controlled by histone modification, such as acetylation and methylation. Each unique cell type expresses a specific set of transcription factors called activators that bind to enhancer elements and determine which genes are transcribed.

Which is the main point of control for regulating gene expression levels?

While the expression of gene products can be regulated at many different steps as the information moves from DNA to RNA to protein, the main point of control is the level of transcription.

What factors increase gene expression?

The expression of genes in an organism can be influenced by the environment, including the external world in which the organism is located or develops, as well as the organism’s internal world, which includes such factors as its hormones and metabolism.

What are the steps of gene expression?

The process of gene expression involves two main stages: Transcription: the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase, and the processing of the resulting mRNA molecule….Translation involves four steps:

  • Initiation.
  • Elongation.
  • Termination.
  • Post-translation processing of the protein.

What is gene expression data?

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to direct the assembly of a protein molecule. The cell reads the sequence of the gene in groups of three bases. Each group of three bases (codon) corresponds to one of 20 different amino acids used to build the protein.

What is gene expression and why is it important?

Gene expression is a tightly regulated process that allows a cell to respond to its changing environment. It acts as both an on/off switch to control when proteins are made and also a volume control that increases or decreases the amount of proteins made.

Why is gene expression so important?

Genes encode proteins and proteins dictate cell function. Therefore, the thousands of genes expressed in a particular cell determine what that cell can do. Thus, control of these processes plays a critical role in determining what proteins are present in a cell and in what amounts. …

Can genes be turned off and on?

The process of turning genes on and off is known as gene regulation. Genes are turned on and off in different patterns during development to make a brain cell look and act different from a liver cell or a muscle cell, for example. Gene regulation also allows cells to react quickly to changes in their environments.

Why do we need to regulate gene expression?

The regulation of gene expression conserves energy and space. It would require a significant amount of energy for an organism to express every gene at all times, so it is more energy efficient to turn on the genes only when they are required.

What are two ways in which eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression?

Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is regulated by repressors as well as by transcriptional activators. Like their prokaryotic counterparts, eukaryotic repressors bind to specific DNA sequences and inhibit transcription.

How can microRNAs miRNAs regulate gene expression?

miRNAs (microRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They generally bind to the 3′-UTR (untranslated region) of their target mRNAs and repress protein production by destabilizing the mRNA and translational silencing.

What type of protein binds to silencers to prevent gene expression from occurring?

repressor

What would enable a single RNA transcript?

What would enable a single RNA transcript to be translated into different polypeptides? The RNA transcript can be spliced more than one way. In a eukaryotic cell an abnormal protein is binding to the promoter for a gene.

What kind of somatic cell gene mutations can frequently lead to?

Somatic or acquired mutations are the most common cause of cancer. These mutations occur from damage to genes in an individual cell during a person’s life. Cancers that occur because of somatic mutations are referred to as sporadic cancers.

What is an example of germline mutation?

A person with a germline mutation will have the mutation in every cell in the body. Germline mutations are the cause of some diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer (eg, breast and ovarian cancer, melanoma).

What is worse a gene mutation or a chromosome mutation Why?

Explanation: Chromosome mutations are potentially more dangerous than gene mutations because they can be swapped and transferred to that parent’s child. When a chromosome mutates, whole sets of genes are altered versus 1 gene.