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What are the protections of the 14th Amendment?

The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States—including former enslaved people—and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection of the laws.” One of three amendments passed during the Reconstruction era to abolish slavery and …

How does the immune system protect against pathogens?

The immune system responds to antigens by producing cells that directly attack the pathogen, or by producing special proteins called antibodies. Antibodies attach to an antigen and attract cells that will engulf and destroy the pathogen. The main cells of the immune system are lymphocytes known as B cells and T cells.

What are the five informal ways to amend the Constitution?

This vital process of constitutional change by means other than formal amendment has taken place—and con- tinues to occur—in five basic ways: through (1) the passage of basic legislation by Congress; (2) actions taken by the President; (3) key decisions of the Supreme Court; (4) the activities of polit- ical parties; …

Who can amend the Indian Constitution?

An amendment of the Constitution may be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and when the Bill is passed in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two thirds of the members of that House present and voting.

What led to the 17th Amendment of the Constitution?

The rise of the People’s Party, commonly referred to as the Populist Party, added motivation for making the Senate more directly accountable to the people. During the 1890s, the House of Representatives passed several resolutions proposing a constitutional amendment for the direct election of senators.

Why was the 17th Amendment important in the Progressive Era?

The Progressive Era (1900-1920) was a period of political, economic, and social reform in the United States. The 17th Amendment helped eliminate corruption and reduce the influence of political machines by allowing Americans to directly elect U.S. senators.