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Among the berbers of central and southern morocco has survived until the mid-TWENTIETH century this proverb to refer to the jews. The generosity of this popular berber is compounded if we consider the context; populations of semi-nomadic, lacking in natural resources, which have historically lived trade trans-saharan, whose currency of exchange secular has been the salt.


By Fernando Alvarez-Baron Rodriguez. Published in {DF} Financial Daily, July 26, 2012

After Auschwitz-Birkenau would have to re-refer to the salt market to describe the exuberance intellectual with the individuals, jews and judaizers have been applied to upend the budgets of the classics of economics, sociology, and psychology, and have led the launch of the neuroscience and neuropsychology.

In Vienna in 1936, 75% of doctors were jewish, compared to 8% of jewish population of the capital of Austria. From the sociological perspective of Victor Karady, one of the causes of this sobrerepresentacion is due to the “compensatory mechanisms” that minorities put in place in order to survive in the bosom of majorities hostile. European jews prior to the holocaust, developed this mechanism compensatory with success, in almost all fields of human activity, but especially in those “new professions”, such as sociology, psychology, economics, journalism, or scientific research related to exploration of the relationships between human beings, their ambiguities and contradictions.

The neurologist Antonio Damasio, published in the 2003 book In search of Spinoza. He explains that the latest findings on emotions to describe as the greater part of human activity takes place through automated processes that are not conscious. We are hostages in a large extent of our automation systems. But identifies physically in the brain mechanisms that allow you to strive intentionally to refine our emotions, and that enable us to decide which objects and situations we squander our time and our attention. In this way, the neuroscience puts legs to the possibility of confirming one of the axioms of social psychology’s most used: the “compensatory mechanisms”.

After 1945 the People of the Holocaust has strengthened the jewish identity, with a dividing line that separates the world into jews and non-jews and that individual is living as a “we nameless”, which is the roadmap of biographical data of the jews and that he welcomes the “compensatory mechanisms” of the individual, transforming the feelings of pain and exclusion in the salt-intellectual, that is so lush it is shown to us, in the over-representation of jewish among the modernizers of thought, among other areas.

A modernizer is without a doubt Daniel Kahneman, an israeli who received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002 for his studies on how humans make decisions in uncertain environments. Kahneman proposes a new concept of rationality that takes into account the systematic errors committed by the brain, such as the illusion of causality, the halo effect, or illusion of validity. Human decision making there is that desdoblarla in two, because it involved two mechanisms in the brain referred to as System 1 and System 2. The System 1 is ready to believe and not to doubt and have panic to the uncertainty and random, for what often is to tell stories consistent, but wrong.

As well as Kahneman on track to upend the budgets of classical economy based on rational expectations, in other fields of knowledge is a sort of “us nameless” make it your own. Alan Wicker, among others, challenges one of the classical paradigms of psychology to say that personality does not determine the behavior of men: “and maybe humans are nothing more than beings who succumb to the pressures, whatever they may be, that are given in the immediate social environment.”

Elliot Aronson, one of the psychologists most influential of US, has dedicated his intellectual effort to the study of inter-ethnic violence and the causes of the conservatism of the human mind. Aronson has come to the conclusion that human behaviors aimed at maintaining our self-esteem is the cornerstone of our cognitive system riddled with biases autoprotectores as; the self-centered thought, the bias of self-interest, or memory, is reconstructive of the past.

Erving Goffman was president of the American Sociological Association, and, like Sigmund Freud, his work reflects the autobiography of a jew who achieves a meteoric social ascent based on their intellectual and professional capacity. Goffman, who in addition to sociologist was camera of cinema, it revolutionized Sociology by asserting that human beings are actors who represent various roles/roles throughout the theater of life. The rules that govern the social life is based on a commitment of convenience (working acceptance) that are ritual rules whose purpose is to maintain the representation (social) in each scene.

As advance famously Sigmund Freud in 1930, the contents aware of the brain we arrive pre-selected, handled and packaged. From 1990 the descubrientos of neuroscience popularized by Joseph LeDoux, Antonio Damasio, Matthew Erdelyi or Daniel Goleman have put us to the evidence that the greater part of human knowledge is unconscious and that a large part of the everyday behaviors, even with the people closest to you, they are mechanical and alien to the consciousness.

The historical violence against jews has been directed beyond the individual, against the collective identity. The reaction, not necessarily individual, it has served as the compensatory mechanisms (Karady), or sublimation (Freud), in a process that necessarily involves the reduction of the time consumed by “the life automatic”, to devote time and efforts on objectives and individual goals, to a much greater extent than the components of the majority social (Damasio).

When Goffman describes us society as the “relations of force based on the sham”, or when Aronson explains the “bias actor observer” , or when Damasio/LeDoux we described empathy as a kind of “theater of the brain supported in mirror neurons”, we cannot but give thanks for the exuberance of this “we nameless”, set “compensatory mechanisms”, which is a toast to the greatest, BARUCH SPINOZA; “the most important activity a human being can attain is learning for understanding, because to understand is to be free”.