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How does a phospholipid bilayer work?

In water, phospholipids spontaneously form a double layer called a lipid bilayer in which the hydrophobic tails of phospholipid molecules are sandwiched between two layers of hydrophilic heads (see figure below). The lipid bilayer acts as a barrier to the passage of molecules and ions into and out of the cell.

What can cross the phospholipid bilayer?

Only small uncharged molecules can diffuse freely through phospholipid bilayers (Figure 2.49). Small nonpolar molecules, such as O2 and CO2, are soluble in the lipid bilayer and therefore can readily cross cell membranes.

What makes the phospholipid bilayer semipermeable?

The polar heads point both outward toward the environment of the cell and inward toward the cytosol. This makes the phospholipid bilayer an excellent semipermeable membrane that allows cells to keep their contents separated from the environment and other cells.

What substances can pass through the cell membrane?

Water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are among the few simple molecules that can cross the cell membrane by diffusion (or a type of diffusion known as osmosis ). Diffusion is one principle method of movement of substances within cells, as well as the method for essential small molecules to cross the cell membrane.

Can starch pass through a semipermeable membrane?

Starch does not pass through the synthetic selectively permeable membrane because starch molecules are too large to fit through the pores of the dialysis tubing.

What happens when IKI solution and starch mix?

Iodine Test Using iodine to test for the presence of starch is a common experiment. A solution of iodine (I2) and potassium iodide (KI) in water has a light orange-brown color. If it is added to a sample that contains starch, such as the bread pictured above, the color changes to a deep blue.

What mechanisms can living cells use to transport starch across the cell membrane?

Larger molecules such as starch can also be actively transported across the cell membrane by processes called endocytosis and exocytosis (discussed later).

How does Substances moves inside and outside the cell?

Substances move in and out of cells by diffusion down a concentration gradient, through a partially permeable membrane. Selected substances can move up a concentration gradient with the help of specialized molecules embedded in the membrane. This is called assisted diffusion or active transport.

How will you describe the sequence of oxygen carbon dioxide and blood flow?

Oxygen passes quickly through this air-blood barrier into the blood in the capillaries. Similarly, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli and is then exhaled. Then the blood is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.